Paris Climate Agreement Ratifications

Paris Climate Agreement Ratifications: Where Does the World Stand Today

The Paris Climate Agreement is arguably one of the most significant international agreements on global warming, climate change, and its impact on the world. Adopted in 2015 by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the agreement aims to limit global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

A crucial aspect of the agreement is that it relies on ratification and implementation by individual countries to achieve its goals. As of today, 191 countries have signed the agreement, and 189 have fulfilled the necessary domestic ratification procedures. This article takes a closer look at the status of the Paris Climate Agreement ratifications across the world.

The United States

The United States, under President Barack Obama, was instrumental in negotiating and ratifying the Paris Agreement. However, in 2017, under the Trump administration, the US withdrew from the agreement, citing the economic burden it placed on the country. However, President Joe Biden signed an executive order to rejoin the agreement on his first day in office, and the US is expected to participate in the upcoming Glasgow climate summit in November 2021.


China, the world`s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, ratified the Paris Agreement in 2016. The country pledged to peak its carbon emissions by 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. However, the country`s progress towards these goals has been a subject of debate.


India, the world`s third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases, ratified the Paris Agreement in 2016. The country aims to achieve 40% of its electricity generation from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030. India has also launched several initiatives, such as the International Solar Alliance, to promote renewable energy globally.

European Union

The European Union, representing 27 countries, ratified the Paris Agreement in 2016. The EU aims to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. Individual countries, such as Germany and France, have also established ambitious targets for renewable energy and carbon neutrality.

Other countries

Other significant ratifications include Japan, South Korea, Canada, Brazil, and Russia. However, some notable exceptions include Australia, which has faced criticism for its lack of action on climate change despite being one of the world`s largest coal exporters.


The Paris Climate Agreement remains a vital tool for global climate action. The ratifications by individual countries demonstrate a recognition of the urgent need to address climate change. However, implementation remains a significant challenge, and progress towards the agreement`s goals has been slow in many countries. The upcoming Glasgow climate summit will provide an opportunity for countries to recommit to the Paris Agreement and take concrete action towards a sustainable future.